By Irena Kogan
Working via boundaries bargains with the function host international locations’ institutional features play within the labour industry integration of immigrants within the eu Union. Drawing on current study it develops a finished conceptual framework of things (and underlying mechanisms) affecting immigrant structural integration within the eu Union-15. It maps the ecu nations with admire to 3 institutional facets critical to immigrant integration, immigration regulations, labour marketplace constitution and welfare regimes. extra, it offers a descriptive photo of the labour marketplace state of affairs of the immigrant inhabitants within the eu Union and seeks to give an explanation for the adaptation in labour marketplace results, specifically unemployment danger and occupational prestige, on the subject of ameliorations within the features of the immigrant populations at the one hand, and by way of changes in labour industry constitution, immigration guidelines and welfare regimes in eu Union nations, at the different. In-depth analyses of a chosen variety of european international locations are conducted, with the purpose of investigating the level to which immigrants have succeeded or failed in numerous institutional contexts.
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Extra resources for Working Through Barriers: Host Country Institutions and Immigrant Labour Market Performance in Europe
This is so largely because immigrants, and particularly those who belong to ethnic minority groups, often undergo the process of segmented assimilation (Zhou, 1999): among other things they are concentrated in labour market segments characterised by poor working conditions, unconventional hours, lack of formal protection and low pay. European countries differ with respect to the size of these segments. They also differ in their employment structures and labour market regulations that most affect immigrants’ chances of entering higher-status employment.
These, often undocumented immigrants, are commonly employed as temporary workers in agriculture, construction, manufacturing and the service sector. Italy and Spain in particular, both being on Europe’s southern border, might well have attracted higher proportions of illegal workers than other countries (Stalker, 2002). 26 Secondly, in the 1990s it was the immigration of highly skilled, managerial workers and entrepreneurs that was and still is of growing importance. The migration of elites, as it has been named by Münz (1997), includes migration of managers and technicians of international firms, representatives of international organisations, scientists, diplomats, 26 One of the best indicators for the number of illegal immigrants comes from regularisations when a country declares an amnesty for certain categories of illegal migrants.
1). Two broad categories of immigrants in the European Union can be distinguished: those who arrive from other EU countries and those from the rest of the world. Distinguishing EU immigrants as a separate group is indeed meaningful since EU-15 citizens enjoy freedom of movement in the Union and are in principle legally equal to nationals on the national labour markets and with respect to social rights (Kiehl and Werner, 1999). g. 34 The problem here is that significant numbers of guest workers who arrived during the 1950s–60s from Southern European countries that only later received 32 33 34 This group will sometimes be called EU immigrants for simplicity.