By André Rafael Fernandes
Down the many years, 1000s of tiatrists have stored audiences enthralled for millions of performances in Goa, Bombay (Mumbai) and in other places. only one determine that provides you a touch of ways well known this type of the Konkani degree is: on any given weekend in the course of the theatrical season, at the very least ten indicates are held in a variety of elements of Goa. inspite of the final apathy of respectable and executive our bodies and the onslaught of cable tv and replacement types of leisure, the tiatr has to this point controlled to carry its floor because the top-rated type of staged leisure for Konkani audio system. yet there's no area for complacency. matters, difficulties and demanding situations in modern tiatr are mentioned during this booklet. Khells moved from ground-level to the degree. Antonio Piedade Moraes innovated the path-breaking transformation of the ground-based khells to degree performances of khell-tiatr. Then got here the evolution of the continuous drama. prepare, all this has intended that the tiatr has been enthused with new existence and dynamism. With the slow decline, even though, of the tiatr creation in Bombay or Mumbai --- the long-time domestic of a giant part of the Goan diaspora --- and corresponding spurt in formation of Goan troupes, theatrical actions have obvious a resurgence. Tiatrs by the way entertain not only neighborhood audiences, yet in recent years additionally practice for the good thing about Goan emigrants in different places in India, the center East, London and Toronto. while expat groups dependent in Karachi met in Goa lately (December 2009), they made a plea to ship throughout a few attention-grabbing tiatr to that a part of the subcontinent, the sometimes-tense kinfolk among India and Pakistan though. Claiming a inhabitants of 20,000 Goans generally in Karachi, they acknowledged a very good tiatr may possibly draw audiences of upto 5 or 6 thousand robust. advancements in verbal exchange applied sciences, comparable to the net, enable the Goan diaspora to pay attention to modern artistes and performances. contemplating all its inherent strengths, the tiatr has an guaranteed destiny as a medium of leisure, schooling and social transformation. * * * This ebook, in line with the author's Ph.D. thesis, strains the improvement of this renowned Konkani drama shape known as the tiatr from its numerous origins. For your time now, the overall impact has been that this dramatic shape all started in 1892 in Bombay. yet, as you are going to learn within the pages that persist with, this article lines the tiatr s genesis to the conventional zagors and khells, which in flip developed over numerous centuries from different old performances. whilst the curtains rise... digs out on hand references from the earliest Portuguese performs in Goa. It tracks advancements in tune and music --- either Indian and Western --- and reports their critical capabilities within the tiatr. It takes a detailed examine diversifications within the spelling of the time period tiatr yet keeps the unique spellings to keep up ancient context, although this can seem complicated every now and then. The etymology of tiatr presents a proof for those variations. The examine issues to the varied features akin to genres, thematic matters, stages of progress, constitution, use of language, roles of actors, roles for ladies, set designing, lights, thoughts, degree administration, exposure, censorship, barriers and viewers participation, between different issues. during this paintings, we supply due credits and spotlight the contribution of João Agostinho Fernandes, rightly considered as Pai Tiatrist (a name bestowed on him, which may be interpreted to intend the daddy of the Tiatr ) for his pioneering function during this style of a still-vibrant Konkani level. numerous of his significant performs are analysed and their impression assessed.
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Additional info for When the curtains rise-- : understanding Goa's vibrant Konkani theatre
18 Nita Lupi, Música e Alma da Índia Portuguesa, 1956, tr. The Music and Spirit of Portuguese India, Lisboa, Editorial Império, 1960, in Scholberg. 19 Henry Scholberg, “Goan Folklore” Mare Liberum, Numero 9, Julho 1995, Review of History of the Seas, Proceedings of the seventh International Seminar on Indo-Portuguese History, published by Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações Portugueses, quotes Bragança Pereira, Vol. 25: “The Portuguese introduced into India the Mando, probably of African origin”.
At the end of the dance a woman dressed as a Mahar woman sweeps the spot and sprinkles water over it. The villagers of the area where this dance is performed stand on the site of an ancient (probably Mauryan) capital of Goa known as Chandrapur and the tradition, which this dance represents, is certainly of considerable antiquity. Just as the Mussallam Khell is localised in Cotta and Cavorim, the Mell is unique in being limited to the Assolna and Velim area in Salcete. After invocatory prayers at the structure of the common Holy Cross, the participants dance to the accompaniment of a drum.
Some features of Khells such as the use of stock characters and masks, permit a comparison with the Commedia Dell’Arte which flourished in Italy in the middle of the sixteenth century and spread to the rest of Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Over the decades, Khells have undergone much transformation. During the Portuguese rule, when censorship was in effect, the first show had to be performed at the residence or compound of the ‘Regedor’ (the equivalent to a village supervisor) for approval.