Visions of Freedom: Havana, Washington, Pretoria, and the by Piero Gleijeses

By Piero Gleijeses

Throughout the ultimate fifteen years of the chilly warfare, southern Africa underwent a interval of upheaval, with dramatic twists and turns in kin among the superpowers. americans, Cubans, Soviets, and Africans fought over the way forward for Angola, the place tens of millions of Cuban squaddies have been stationed, and over the decolonization of Namibia, Africa's final colony. past lay the nice prize: South Africa. Piero Gleijeses makes use of archival assets, rather from the us, South Africa, and the closed Cuban documents, to supply an unparalleled foreign background of this significant theater of the overdue chilly War.

These assets all aspect to 1 end: through humiliating the us and defying the Soviet Union, Fidel Castro replaced the process historical past in southern Africa. It was once Cuba's victory in Angola in 1988 that pressured Pretoria to set Namibia unfastened and helped holiday the again of apartheid South Africa. within the phrases of Nelson Mandela, the Cubans "destroyed the parable of the invincibility of the white oppressor . . . [and] encouraged the scuffling with plenty of South Africa."

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Visions of Freedom: Havana, Washington, Pretoria, and the Struggle for Southern Africa, 1976-1991

Through the ultimate fifteen years of the chilly struggle, southern Africa underwent a interval of upheaval, with dramatic twists and turns in family members among the superpowers. americans, Cubans, Soviets, and Africans fought over the way forward for Angola, the place tens of millions of Cuban infantrymen have been stationed, and over the decolonization of Namibia, Africa's final colony.

Extra info for Visions of Freedom: Havana, Washington, Pretoria, and the Struggle for Southern Africa, 1976-1991

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The next day he was killed on the battlefield. In 1898, as the Cuban revolt entered its fourth year, the United States joined the war against an exhausted Spain, ostensibly to free Cuba. After Spain surrendered, Washington forced the Platt Amendment on the Cubans, which granted the United States the right to send troops to the island whenever it deemed it necessary and to establish bases on Cuban soil. S. ”⁸ Until 1959, that is, when Fidel Castro came to power and tweaked the beak of the American eagle.

This was our philosophy. When they got wind of how many troops we were sending they got scared. Because theirs is a regime based on bravado: outwardly aggressive, but inwardly—morally and politically—weak. So instead of rising to the challenge, when the South Africans saw that wall of tanks, artillery and men advancing from different directions, they began to withdraw. We kept advancing, but we gave them an opportunity [to withdraw]. We kept pushing, pushing and pushing until they withdrew completely from Angola, without fighting.

Carter and Southern Africa Jimmy Carter assumed office in January 1977 determined to reestablish the prestige of the United States in Africa, shattered by the Angolan fiasco. S. S. government—was a symbol to Africans of the new administration’s priorities. S. interests appear as threatened as in southern Africa. One of the first Presidential Review Memoranda of the new administration (PRM 4) was devoted to Rhodesia, Namibia, and South Africa. “Violent resistance by blacks against efforts by whites indefinitely to maintain their domination in Rhodesia, Namibia or South Africa,” it warned, “would increase the chances of increased Communist influence, major power confrontation in the area and a kind of involvement on our part which the American people do not want and do not support.

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