Genetics 101 (Science 101) by Michael Windelspecht

By Michael Windelspecht

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However, it was Mendel who experimentally demonstrated that this was the case. Mendel’s scientific and mathematical knowledge made him recognize that it was not possible to establish an empirical law of inheritance from the data derived from a single cross. So he designed and conducted six additional crosses to verify that his original observations were valid. 2. ) for two generations. Two items should be evident from the data in the table. First, each of his crosses yielded approximately a 3:1 ratio in the second generation.

The symbols within the box represent the possible offspring (zygotes) from the combination of the gametes. A Punnett square is useful in illustrating the potential offspring of a given cross when the inheritance patterns of one or two traits are being examined. 3). However, the diagram becomes cumbersome for more than three traits, so most geneticists rely upon other means, including statistics, to predict the outcome of complex crosses. THOMAS HUNT MORGAN AND THE FLY LAB In 1900 three botanists, Hugo de Vries (1848–1935), Erich Tschermak (1871–1962), and Carl Correns (1864–1933), independently published results of their research that effectively “rediscovered” Mendel’s work.

What Hershey and Chase needed was one element that was unique to protein, and a second element that was unique to the nucleic acids (specifically DNA). They used a radioactive form of sulfur called 35 S. Sulfur is found only in proteins, and not in DNA. As a marker for DNA they choose radioactive 32 P, since phosphorous is only found in DNA. The experimental design of the Hershey–Chase experiment was simple. One batch of viruses were grown in the presence of 35 S, while a second batch was grown in the presence of 32 P.

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