Gating in Cerebral Networks by Mircea Steriade

By Mircea Steriade

The right kind functioning of the mammalian mind depends upon the built-in job of myriad neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Discrete parts serve discrete capabilities, and dispersed or allotted groups of cells serve others. all through, those networks of job are below the keep watch over of neuromodulatory structures. One objective of present neuroscientific learn is to explain the right equipment during which those platforms function, in particular in the course of basic unsleeping behaviours and techniques. Mircea Steriade and Denis Par? describe the neuronal homes and networks that exist inside and among the cortex and very important sub-cortical constructions: the thalamus and amygdala. The authors discover the adjustments in those houses, protecting themes together with morphology, electrophysiology, structure and gating; and evaluating areas and platforms in either general and diseased states. aimed toward graduates and postdoctoral researchers in neuroscience.

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Although attention is usually focused on the apical trunk of dendrites, the basal dendrites are much more luxuriant in both deeply lying and more superficial pyramidal neurons. The transmitter used by all pyramidal neurons is glutamate or aspartate (Baughman & Gilbert, 1980; Fonnum et al, 1981). 5B) and RE nuclei; layer V pyramids project to thalamic intralaminar nuclei, basal ganglia, superior colliculus, other brainstem nuclear aggregates and the spinal cord; and layers II--III pyramids mainly project to ipsi- and contralateral cortical areas (Jones, 1984).

Fig. 3 Neocortical pyramidal and local-circuit neurons. (A1--2) Golgi staining of macaque monkey’s precentral neurons: a, pyramidal neurons; b, baskettype local interneuron; c, double-bouquet dendritic cell. (B) Free-hand drawing summarizing some pyramidal and local-circuit inhibitory neurons; a--c, same types of neurons as in (A). (A) Unpublished slide of M. Steriade (1949); (B) modified from Colonnier (1966). 29 30 G A T I N G I N C E RE B R A L N E T WO R K S [4] These morphological differences between corticotectal and callosal neurons were associated with different electrophysiological properties, the former being of the bursting type, whereas every cell projecting to the opposite visual cortex was a non-burster.

Membrane bistability may play an important role in different patterns of spindles displayed by TC neurons. Indeed, intracellular recordings of thalamic relay cells show at least two different patterns during spontaneously occurring spindles. 16 may be related to the actions exerted by non-bistable and bistable RE neurons, respectively. Non-bistable RE neurons fire stronger bursts, with higher intraburst frequencies, which are assumed to generate deeper and longer IPSPs in TC neurons. By contrast, IPSPs with lower amplitudes and higher frequency, up to 20 Hz, are likely generated by single action potentials in RE neurons, as they occur during the depolarizing plateau in bistable cells.

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