Fortifications Of The Western Front 1914-1918 by Paddy Griffith, Peter Dennis

By Paddy Griffith, Peter Dennis

Following the early battles of 1914 alongside the Marne and within the Ypres salient, international struggle I speedily replaced from a battle of circulation into one in all attrition, with the opposing facets entrenching themselves in a line of fortified positions from the Flanders sea coast to the Swiss border. This quantity info different varieties of fortification used at the Western entrance through the process the conflict, from the early ditches of 1914 to the complex structures of 1918. It explains the improvement of the 'defence extensive' German process and the British response to it, in addition to illustrating the significance of the pre-war forts, really round Verdun.

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The significance of this episode to Administration foreign policy and Anglo-American relations was not lost on Roosevelt. ”110 Roosevelt then added with a further gambling reference that he would wager an “old hat” “that Hitler when he wakes up and finds out what has happened, . . ” Whatever Hitler’s response, those in London knew that the Administration’s failure meant there would be little assistance in this area coming from Washington as tension increased. ”111 In short, then, the debate epitomized the dual trends within the American population with the nonentanglement element winning through.

53 Although he returned to Chamberlain’s government as Dominions Secretary at the outbreak of war, had Eden remained as Foreign Secretary then British policy toward Washington might have been more agreeable in the months preceding the conflict. Instead, Chamberlain’s objections to Welles’ proposal meant it was stillborn and, although its sentiment would be evident in Administration thinking up to and including the Welles mission, it was not to be revisited in this form. With Eden gone from the Chamberlain government in February 1938, Anglo-American relations were in a difficult state.

S. 101 Yet the harmony of interests at the agreement’s conclusion betrayed a long and hard negotiation process during which differences between London and Washington were evident. Hull’s role in overcoming such difficulties requires some examination. As explained previously, Hull was a firm believer in the Reciprocal Trade Agreement program and saw an agreement with Britain as integral to this. ”102 Yet it had taken until March 1938 for negotiations with Britain to begin formally and by early autumn Hull was exasperated by the lack of progress.

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