By Charles Griswold
Approximately every person has wronged one other. Who between us has no longer longed to be forgiven? approximately all people has suffered the sour injustice of wrongdoing. Who has no longer struggled to forgive? Charles Griswold has written the 1st entire philosophical ebook on forgiveness in either its interpersonal and political contexts, in addition to its relation to reconciliation. Having tested where of forgiveness in old philosophy and in sleek concept, he discusses what forgiveness is, what stipulations the events to it needs to meet, its relation to revenge and hatred, whilst it's permissible and if it is compulsory, and why it's a advantage.
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Additional resources for Forgiveness: A Philosophical Exploration
Gerson, Hellenistic Philosophy 2nd ed. (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1997), pp. 220–221, where forgiveness is grouped with epieikeia – the disposition to release a malefactor from merited punishment. Or again, cf. 123: the Sages “do no harm: for they harm neither others nor themselves. ” Along with epieikeia (equity), pity and forgiveness are rejected because they mitigate or negate the punishment that is due (the DL text is in Inwood-Gerson, p. 200). There seem to be variations in Stoic views about equity, mercy, and pardon; and differences between them and Plato and Aristotle on the same topics.
10, p. ). All other references to GM advert to this translation. I note that in par. 11, Nietzsche refers to the “instincts of reaction and ressentiment” (p. 23); and in par. ’). ” So forgiveness is actually the expression rather than the forswearing of ressentiment. Nietzsche’s argument is usefully explored by M. Scheler in his “Negative Feelings and the Destruction of Values: Ressentiment,” trans. W. W. Holdheim; in On Feeling, Knowing, and Valuing, ed. H. J. Bershady (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), pp.
Socrates nowhere recommends that others forgive wrongs; indeed he predicts that “vengeance will come” upon those who voted to execute him (Apol. 39 c–d), evidently at the hands of his followers. As Mark McPherran has pointed out to me, Plato’s eschatological myths too leave little or no room for forgiveness in the afterlife (though see Pho. 114b). P1: JZP 9780521878821c01 CUNY894/Griswold 978 0 521 87882 1 Pardon, Excuse, and Forgiveness in Ancient Philosophy June 20, 2007 20:24 11 and such a person would not, by definition, injure others (as Socrates explicitly says of himself at Apol.