By Andrew Fix (auth.)
Dutch Reformed pastor Balthasar Bekker (1634-1698) has lengthy been famous as a key determine after all of the witchcraft persecutions in early glossy Europe. With the booklet of his enormous four-volume paintings The international Bewitched Bekker argued opposed to the temporal job of the satan and evil spirits in addition to opposed to the truth of witchcraft, sorcery, and spirit ownership. but Bekker's rules drew competition from Dutch Reformed priests who charged that his use of Cartesian philosophy to reject the temporal task of spirits threatened a lot of conventional spiritual religion.
This publication argues that it wa Bekker's exegesis of biblical passages during which spirits and spirit task have been pointed out that used to be a much larger danger than his Cartesian metaphysics to the literal interpretation of the Bible which was once the highbrow cornerstone of Dutch reformed confessionalism, dominant within the church because the Synod of Dordrecht (1618-1619). With an exam of the guidelines of Bekker, his rivals and supporters, this e-book areas the debate round The international Bewitched in the context of the Cartesian debates of the 17th century and the expansion of confessionalism in the Dutch Reformed church.
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Additional info for Fallen Angels: Balthasar Bekker, Spirit Belief, and Confessionalism in the Seventeenth Century Dutch Republic
The Lord's Day was a human institution, but it was observed according to God's Word. 40 Bekker sent the Nodige Antwoord to the Friesian classes, at the same time offering to come before them in person to explain his ideas. Meanwhile, Alting's old enemy Maresius entered the fray against Bekker with his work Catechesis Publica. Maresius argued that the Fourth Commandment dated from the creation of the world, was observed by the patriarchs but neglected in Egypt, then was restored with the falling of the manna in the wilderness.
Using these methods they reinterpreted passages that they felt were otherwise unintelligible, offensive, or confusing. 13 The exegetical disagreements between Coccejans and confessionalists were brought into sharp focus by the sabbath controversy, which burned with its greatest fury during the middle years of the seventeenth century. Although the dispute over the nature and meaning of the Christian sabbath had raged in the Republic for well over half a century before Coccejus and his followers got involved.
Like Heidanus, Heereboord saw philosophy as having no real role in theology beyond definition of terms and defense of orthodoxy. Revealed truth in Scripture could not be interpreted with reason, he felt, and he also insisted that theology had no role in philosophy. 9 Perhaps the most important of all the Leiden Cartesians was Johannes De Raey, who taught at the university beginning in 1651 before becoming ordinary professor of philosophy in 1661. He had studied with both Regius and Heereboord. Like Heereboord, De Raey tried to reconcile Cartesianism with the Aristotelian tradition, seeking to "purify" Scholastic philosophy using a new method based partly on Descartes.