By Colin Renfrew
The excavations undertaken via the British tuition at Athens on the Bronze Age website of Phylakopi within the Cycladic island of Melos from 1896 to 1899, below the quick supervision of Duncan Mackenzie, were defined (by no much less an expert than Carl Blegen) as: 'the first quite critical attempt to appreciate stratification, the 1st significant excavation in Greece'. because that point Phylakopi has been a key web site either for the examine of the Cycladic Bronze Age and of prehistoric Aegean interconnections. This quantity completes the authoritative account of the excavations undertaken for the British tuition of Archaeology from 1974 to 1977 less than the course of Colin Renfrew. best experts give a contribution complete descriptions of the stratigraphy, of the pottery of successive stages and of the opposite unearths, now making Phylakopi essentially the most comprehensively documented and released websites of the Aegean Bronze Age. Phylakopi used to be a payment in shut contact with different parts, significantly Minoan Crete and Helladic Greece, from the Early Bronze Age onwards, with a marked bring up in Minoan imports throughout the heart Bronze Age. The chronology of the fortifications is the following re-assessed within the mild of stratigraphic institutions. The painted plasters, now assigned to the overdue Bronze I interval, also are re-evaluated, as is the real vital construction of the time (with the locate of a capsule fragment within the Minoan Linear A script). major fabric of the Mycenaean interval is defined intimately and vitamins reveals from the 1974-77 excavations released within the Archaeology of Cult: The Sanctuary at Phylakopi. BSA Suppl. 18 (London 1985). the expansion of payment in Melos has been defined in C. Renfrew and J.M. Wagstaff (eds.), An Island Polity: the Archaeology of Exploitation in Melos (Cambridge 1982). With this new quantity book of the undertaking now reaches final touch, supplying the documentation upon which past and newer conclusions needs to relaxation. This paintings may still stand for a few years because the definitive account of this significant Bronze Age website, one of many first proto-urban centres of the prehistoric Aegean. It deals a lot of the evidential foundation wanted for assessing the function of the Cyclades within the constructing box of Aegean Bronze Age stories.
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Extra resources for Excavations at Phylakopi in Melos 1974-77 (BSA Supplementary Volume)
The first way to ascertain the innovation performance is by way of count data. We can count the percentage of innovating firms, the percentage of innovators with products new to the industry, the percentage of R&D performers, the percentage of continuous R&D performers, and so on. 2 presents some of those count indicators. 6 per cent of all firms in the sample) have introduced a product new to the industry in Denmark. No information on this variable exists for Ireland. Of all innovating firms in Denmark (Ireland), 82 per cent (67 per cent) are R&D performers.
We have classified firms into six size classes: with a number of employees less than or equal to 49, between 50 and 99, between 100 and 249, between 250 and 499, between 500 and 999, and above 1000. Past growth can be a determining factor, as a predictor of future growth, as a demand-pull effect (see Brouwer and Kleinknecht, 1999), or as a signal of easy access to capital financing. The growth of sales between 1990 and 1992 is available in the dataset. Firms that are part of a group are expected to benefit from knowledge spillovers, internal access to finance, or synergies in marketing, distribution and so on, and to be more innovative because of this.
Moreover, there is probably a time lag between the inputs and the outputs of innovation which, given the cross-sectional nature of our data, we are unable to take into account. The main conclusions we can draw from the analysis of the partial indicators of the Danish and Irish CIS 1 data can be summarized as follows: (i) Current expenditures on innovation is a variable of dubious quality. (ii) There is more to innovation expenditure than R&D, but the two measures are highly correlated. 65 at the firm level.