By Hartmut Scharfe
A complete survey of all facets of schooling in India, either within the oral and written traditions. Chronologically it covers every little thing from the Vedic interval as much as the Hindu kingdoms prior to the institution of Muslim rule. If suitable, the reader will usually locate sidesteps to fashionable continuities. The position of the oral culture and the recommendations of memorization are mentioned, besides schooling in small inner most tutorials and the advance of enormous monasteries and temple faculties impending college personality. specialist education, the position of the trainer and of overseas languages are handled, and the influence of the odd beneficial properties of Indian schooling on Indian society.
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Extra resources for Education in Ancient India (Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 2 South Asia)
LSSf. many people must have been able to read the documents... " 106 RE XIV and XV; others were addressed to the gods, as it were, inscribed on a high unaccessible mountainside at Mansehra - like the Old Persian inscriptions at Bisutun. 107 Frits Staal, The Fidelity of Oral Tradition, pp. 301-310. 83f. 2f. ) Ong displays an abysmal ignorance of ancient India, when he calls the brahmans a "literate caste" and claims: "At certain periods of Indian history, only brahmans were taught to read at all.
Levi-Strauss, Lapensee sauvage, Paris 1962, trans, by George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Ltd. as The Savage Mind, London 1966 (4th impression, Chicago 1968), pp. 16-36. Cf. 27: "not... " ""Manu IX 58-68. 113 THE ORAL TRADITION 31 Panini's grammar where sometimes injunctions are given spread over two rules. In the Mahabhasya the question is raised why there are two varttika-s 9 and 10 on Panini VIII2 6 rather than one. "1 ' 5 A literary author would probably have edited his work more smoothly. Oral traditions often preserve amazing genealogies that can stretch over many generations, from the lists of successive teachers in the Brahmanas and Jain abbots to the Dayaks of Borneo or African tribes, but as modern studies have shown they are often more political statements than objective historical facts: the list of leading clans in an African epic recorded by Western visitors half a century ago is subtly changed in recent records, with clans that lost power being omitted, newly empowered clans credited with an impressive past they did not have before.
Buddhayasas from Kashmir the Vinaya of the Dharmagupta sect. D. 289. by I-tsing trans. Takakusu, London 1896 (repr. New Delhi 1982), pp. 182f. Muller, Kritische Gedanken zur antiken Mnemotechnik undzum Auctor ad Herennium, Stuttgart 1996. Seelenmaschinen, ed. Jorg Jochen Berns und Wolfgang Neuber, Wien 2000, pays no attention to Indian memory technique and deals only with the European tradition. 241. l. The commentator Dhammapala (late fifth cent. 54. Not all monks were that capable. 571-582 and Suryacandrdya (Essays in Honour ofAkira Yuyama), p.