Dire Demographics: Population Trends in the Russian by Julie Davanzo

By Julie Davanzo

Within the previous couple of a long time of the 20 th century, Russian demographics underwent a few vital alterations, together with reduce fertility premiums and better loss of life charges. This document stories the standards in the back of those traits and indicates that they elevate monstrous demanding situations for policymakers inside Russia.

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High rates of infectious or parasitic disease, such as tuberculosis, often ______________ 6 Although data on deaths by cause by age and sex are available for both the Russian Federation and the United States through 1997, comparable data are currently available only through 1995. There are some minor differences in statistics on deaths by cause between the Russian Federation and the United States making impossible exact comparisons of deaths by cause by age and sex since 1995. In 1997, statistics on all deaths indicate there were 1,160 deaths for every 100,000 males 15 to 64 years old in Russia, but only 392 deaths for every 100,000 males 15 to 64 in the United States (Pashintseva, Voronina, and Kazachenko, 1998; Hoyert, Kochanek, and Murphy, 1999).

S. rate (Treml, 1997). Circulatory disease did not play a large role in variations in life expectancies before the dissolution of the Soviet Union, but it has been of great importance since then. An increase in deaths from circulatory disease accounted for nearly half the decrease in life expectancy from 1992 to 1994. Such deaths are often attributable to emotional stress, which likely was high in the years immediately following the fall of the Soviet Union (Stone, 2000). Poverty, which increased nearly 20-fold between 1987 and 1993, may have led to stress exacerbating mortality in the post-Soviet economic transition (Chen, Wittgenstein, and McKeon, 1996).

It held that declining fertility rates were not typical of socialism and that socialist economic improvement would yield higher birth rates and lower abortion rates. Such views resulted in little attention or effort being ______________ 4 Although there are no complete data on the number of illegal abortions between 1991 and 1996 (the most recent year for which any such data are available), it appears that the number of illegal abortions declined at about twice the rate as that for other abortions (Avdeev and Troitskaia, 1999).

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