Czech (Languages of the world) by Laura A Janda

By Laura A Janda

This grammatical comic strip of Czech is meant to function a descriptive instruction manual unencumbered via the perspective of anyone theoretical framework. The advent will provide a survey of the site and variety of audio system, in addition to the relation of Czech to different languages, and the relatives of literary Czech to its versions (dialectology and diglossia). The bankruptcy on phonology will concentrate on vowel volume, assimilations, and the prosodic habit of clitics. The bankruptcy on morphology will element the grammatical different types expressed within the language and the technique of their expression, with detailed emphasis on morphophonemic alternations. this can be to be by way of a bankruptcy on syntax, in an effort to deal with the meanings and makes use of of circumstances and prepositions, numeral buildings, clause constitution, a number of negation, use of passive and causative structures, coordination and subordination of clauses, and discourse phenomena. A separate bankruptcy may be dedicated to the difficulty of diglossia in Czech, outlining the phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical changes that exist among the 2 "standard" codes of the language, literary Czech and spoken Czech. The publication will shut with short texts to function examples of the 2 codes, each one with an interlinear transcription and translation into English.

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The particles atÕ/nechtÕ can also be used with first and second person non-past forms: AtÕ neud«l‡£ ¢‡dnŽ chyby! Õ, AtÕ ho u¢ v’ckr‡t neuvid’m! Õ. Gerunds and active participles In addition to the forms cited above, the paradigm of a verb may include a present gerund, a past gerund, and both present and past active participles. The present gerund is formed using the following endings, depending upon the conjugation type and the gender and number: Type I and Type II verbs m: -e d«laje f or n: -’c d«laj’c Ôwhile doingÕ pl: -’ce d«laj’ce Type III verbs m: -a veda f or n: -ouc vedouc Ôwhile leadingÕ pl: -ouce vedouce The present active participle is formed by adding the soft adjectival ending -’ to the feminine/neuter form of the present gerund: d«laj’c’ Ô(the one who is) doingÕ; vedouc’ Ô(the one who is) leading, bossÕ.

Any short forms that do exist in Czech are used only predicatively. There is only one adjective with only short forms: r‡d ÔgladÕ. Only a few other adjectives permit short forms and these are used only predicatively in the nominative. For passive participles, as stated above, short forms are the norm in the predicate: dopis byl naps‡n Ôthe letter was writtenÕ vs. napsan´ dopis Ôthe written letterÕ. N (anim:) nemocn´ ÔillÕ singular short forms plural short forms masculine feminine neuter masculine feminine neuter nemocen nemocna nemocno nemocny nemocny nemocna nemocni As with long form adjectives, the Npl masculine animate ending triggers the Type 1 alternation.

AtÕ ho u¢ v’ckr‡t neuvid’m! Õ. Gerunds and active participles In addition to the forms cited above, the paradigm of a verb may include a present gerund, a past gerund, and both present and past active participles. The present gerund is formed using the following endings, depending upon the conjugation type and the gender and number: Type I and Type II verbs m: -e d«laje f or n: -’c d«laj’c Ôwhile doingÕ pl: -’ce d«laj’ce Type III verbs m: -a veda f or n: -ouc vedouc Ôwhile leadingÕ pl: -ouce vedouce The present active participle is formed by adding the soft adjectival ending -’ to the feminine/neuter form of the present gerund: d«laj’c’ Ô(the one who is) doingÕ; vedouc’ Ô(the one who is) leading, bossÕ.

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