By R. A. Carr-Hill
Crime, The Police and legal facts: An research of reputable data for England and Wales utilizing Econometric tools offers a learn of the relation among authentic felony information and the actions which they're speculated to replicate. The ebook is produced from 3 sections: the theoretical historical past, the empirical argument, and sure implications of the examine. the 1st part discusses the criminological, sociological, and fiscal theories into consideration within the mild of obtainable facts, and their relevance to the nations and interval of the research: England and Wales within the Sixties. the second one part describes the options hired and the interpretations of the got effects. the ultimate part considers the exam of using legit felony information in discussions of coverage; and the evaluate of types of compatible or optimal suggestions of punishment and deterrence. The monograph should be of curiosity to criminologists, economists, sociologists, and statisticians.
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Additional info for Crime, the Police and Criminal Statistics. An Analysis of Official Statistics for England and Wales Using Econometric Methods
But Zimring and Hawkins are making a further, and we believe important point: the subjective cost of offending is increased by public concentration on, and condemnation of, particular behaviour. Previous discussions of deterrence theories have, therefore, been in terms of the following factors: the likelihood and perceived likelihood of punish ment; and the level and perceived severity of punishment. We shall argue that for both the likelihood and severity of punishment, the perceptions are crucial and these are the subject of the next two sections.
Appropriate indicators will be discussed later. The theory of culture conflict was developed from the suggestion that, when one group imposed its own code of conduct on another by force, there was likely to be a large increase in crime (Sellin (1938)). Even in societies which are fairly homogeneous in their ethical beliefs, there are obviously 38 Crime, the Police and Criminal Statistics some individuals who are opposed to these beliefs. For us, of course, the main question is the identity of such groups if they do in fact exist.
12 See, for example, Curtis (1975) who discusses a survey finding that over two-thirds of violent offences recorded by the police involve both black offenders and victims. 2 Crime, the Police and Criminal Statistics Females At first sight, females ought to offend more since they are denied access to institutionalised means and they are an oppressed cultural g r o u p . But there are very few women among the population of caught offenders. The anomie theorist could argue that they have less motivation to strive after the goals of material wealth (since that is their h u s b a n d ' s role) and that in fact they have every interest to conform, whilst the culture conflict theorist could argue that the female is oppressed by the male rather than by property.