Common LISP : an interactive approach by Stuart C. Shapiro

By Stuart C. Shapiro

KEY gain: instructing clients new and extra strong methods of considering courses, this two-in-one textual content features a tutorial—full of examples—that explains the entire crucial techniques of Lisp programming, plus an up to date precis of ANSI universal Lisp, directory each operator in the language. Informative and enjoyable, it supplies clients every little thing they should commence writing courses in Lisp either successfully and successfully, and highlights such leading edge Lisp beneficial properties as automated reminiscence administration, show up typing, closures, and extra. Dividing fabric into elements, the educational 1/2 the booklet covers subject-by-subject the fundamental center of universal Lisp, and sums up classes of previous chapters in examples of genuine functions: a backward-chainer, and an embedded language for object-oriented programming. together with 3 appendices, the precis half the booklet supplies resource code for a range of normal universal Lisp operators, with definitions that provide a accomplished rationalization of the language and supply a wealthy resource of actual examples; summarizes a few modifications among ANSI universal Lisp and customary Lisp because it was once initially outlined in 1984; and includes a concise description of each functionality, macro, and precise operator in ANSI universal Lisp. The e-book concludes with a piece of notes containing clarifications, references, and extra code. For machine programmers

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That is why, in all three examples above, Lisp used the escape brackets. To convince yourself that the escape brackets are not part of the name itself, you could do > (symbol-name ’|frank|) "frank" > (string= (symbol-name ’f|rank|) "Frank") T > (eql ’f\rank ’|FrANK|) T 6: Symbols 31 We have now seen Common Lisp objects that are integers, floating-point numbers, ratios, strings, characters, lists, and symbols. These are called different types or data types. You may be familiar with programming languages that have typed variables.

Note that the indentations are intended to show that integer and float are subtypes of number, and that short-float, single-float, double-float, and long-float are subtypes of float. There is no significance to the order of types that are at the same level. 2: Numbers 9 number integer float short-float single-float double-float long-float Exercises From now on, unless otherwise mentioned, all exercises assume you are typing to the top-level Common Lisp listener. 1 (r) Type some small positive and negative integers, one per line.

There are two important points here. One is that the value of a quoted symbol is the symbol itself. This is the same rule we saw with lists: The value of a quoted object is the object itself. The other important point is that frank and FRANK are just two different printed representations of the same symbol. Common Lisp allows you to use lowercase letters just because it’s easier for you to type lowercase letters than uppercase letters. We can check this with the function eql, which is Common Lisp’s equality test for symbols: > (eql ’frank ’FRANK) T > (eql ’frank ’pi) NIL > (eql ’pi ’PI) T Actually, eql is more general than an equality test for symbols.

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