Genetics : Analysis & Principles , Third Edition by Robert J. Brooker

By Robert J. Brooker

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The genotypes are obtained directly from the Punnett square. 1 MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE within the boxes that have been filled in. In this example, the genotypes are TT, Tt, and tt in a 1:2:1 ratio. To determine the phenotypes, you must know the dominant/ recessive relationship between the alleles. For plant height, we know that T (tall) is dominant to t (dwarf). The genotypes TT and Tt are tall, whereas the genotype tt is dwarf. Therefore, our Punnett square shows us that the ratio of phenotypes is 3:1, or 3 tall plants : 1 dwarf plant.

Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene. For example, a particular human gene affects eye color. The gene can exist as a blue allele or a brown allele. The difference between these two alleles is caused by a mutation. Perhaps the brown allele was the first eye color allele in the human population. Within some ancestral person, however, a mutation may have occurred in the eye color gene that converted the brown allele to the blue allele. Now the human population has both the brown allele and the blue allele.

The child in the middle was raised on a phenylalanine-free diet and developed normally. The other two children were born before the benefits of a phenylalanine-free diet were known and were raised on diets that contained phenylalanine. Therefore, they manifest a variety of symptoms, including mental retardation. People born today with this disorder are usually diagnosed when infants. 9 Examples of chromosome variation. (a) A person with Down syndrome competing in the Special Olympics. This person has 47 chromosomes rather than the common number of 46, because she has an extra copy of chromosome 21.

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