Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System 6th by Society for Neuroscience

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These drugs have emerged as the so-called date- the well-known cholinergic nicotinic receptor. This drug can act rape drugs. When mixed with alcohol, Rohypnol can incapacitate as both a stimulant and a sedative. Nicotine stimulates the adrenal victims and prevent them from resisting sexual assault. Rohypnol glands, and the resulting discharge of epinephrine causes a “kick”: a may be lethal when mixed with alcohol and other depressants. sudden release of glucose paired with an increase in blood pressure, Since about 1990 in the United States, GHB has been abused for respiration, and heart rate.

Researchers have begun to modulate the actions of genes that treatments. Reductions occur in levels of markers for many neu- play critical roles in the production of amyloid in animal models. rotransmitters, including acetylcholine, somatostatin, monoamines, These genes encode the amyloid-producing enzymes beta and and glutamate, that allow cells to communicate with one another. gamma secretases, which cleave amyloid peptide from the precur- Damage to these neural systems, which are critical for attention, sor.

During a lifetime, the brain is at risk for functioning seems relatively unaffected by age. Many people do well losing some of its neurons, but normal aging does not result in throughout life and continue to do well even when old, at least until widespread neuron loss as occurs in Alzheimer’s disease or after shortly before death. The wisdom and experience of older people a stroke. Brain tissue can respond to damage or loss of neurons often make up for deficits in performance. The oldest human, Jeanne by expanding dendrites and fine-tuning connections between Calment, kept her wits throughout her 122-year life span.

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