Biochemistry and Genetics Pretest Self-Assessment and Review by Golder Wilson

By Golder Wilson

PreTest is the nearest you may get to seeing the USMLE Step 1 sooner than you are taking it!

500 USMLE-style questions and answers!

Great for path evaluation and the USMLE Step 1, PreTest asks the appropriate questions so you’ll be aware of the suitable solutions. You’ll locate 500 clinical-vignette kind questions and solutions besides whole factors of right and wrong solutions. The content material has been reviewed through scholars who lately handed their tests, so that you understand you're learning the main appropriate and updated fabric attainable. No different research advisor goals what you really want to understand with a purpose to move like PreTest!

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Key concepts: Gene regulation (Murray, pp 411-433. Scriver, pp 3-45. ) • DNA sequence elements that regulate transcription efficiency include promoters (eg, the TATA box), enhancers, repressors or silencers, and RNA termination signals (eg, the AAUAAA DNA sequence). • Most mammalian genes have a TATAAA (TATA box) promoter located 25 to 30 bp upstream from the transcription start site that directs RNA polymerase II to the proper location; TATA binding protein (TBP) and its associated factors (TAFs) comprise transcription factor TFIID that is instrumental in forming the transcription initiation complex (see Table 7).

The Hardy-Weinberg law predicts allele frequencies in an idealized population according to the formula p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 (p + q = 1, 2pq refers to heterozygotes). Applied to cystic fibrosis, the law predicts that homozygotes (q2) have a frequency of 1 in 1600, predicting that carriers (2pq) have a frequency of 1 in 20. A karyotype is an ordered arrangement of chromosomes that is described by cytogenetic notation. A karyotype can be obtained from dividing cells (blood leukocytes, bone marrow, fibroblasts, and amniocytes), but not from frozen or formalin-fixed cells (Fig.

Reproduced, with permission, from Murray RK, Bender DA, Botham KM, et al. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry. 29th ed. ) 26 High-Yield Facts in Biochemistry and Genetics 27 • • • • • • • • essential amino acids—remembered as the acronym PVT TIM HALL using the single-letter amino acid code (Table 1). Nonessential amino acids include glutamate/glutamine from α-ketoglutarate, alanine from pyruvate, aspartate/asparagines from oxaloacetate, serine from 3-phosphoglycerate, glycine from glyoxylate/ serine/choline, proline from glutamate, cysteine from methionine, and tyrosine from phenylalanine.

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