Anti-Individualism: Mind and Language, Knowledge and by Sanford C. Goldberg

By Sanford C. Goldberg

Sanford Goldberg argues right account of the communique of data via speech has anti-individualistic implications for either epistemology and the philosophy of brain and language. partly 1 he deals a singular argument for anti-individualism approximately brain and language, the view that the contents of one's strategies and the meanings of one's phrases count for his or her individuation on one's social and normal atmosphere. partially 2 he discusses the epistemic measurement of data communique, arguing that the epistemic features of communication-based ideals rely on gains of the cognitive and linguistic acts of the subject's social friends. In acknowledging an ineliminable social size to brain, language, and the epistemic different types of data, justification, and rationality, his publication develops basic hyperlinks among externalism within the philosophy of brain and language, at the one hand, and externalism is epistemology, at the different.

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Of course it is one thing to say that, insofar as we rely epistemically on other people’s say-so, we inherit (and/or sustain) their concepts. It is another to say that what was asserted to be the case in another’s say-so is determined by norms governing all members of the speech community. The latter thesis, which is what the above theorists appear to accept, and which is what I will ultimately be trying to establish in this chapter, is significantly stronger. To see this, let it be granted that in any speech exchange in which a hearer accepts a speaker’s say-so, the hearer inherits or sustains that speaker’s concepts.

However, rather than go into the details here,24 it will suffice simply to note that conditions (a)–(c) will provide three necessary conditions on testimonial knowledge in all standard cases, where a case is standard whenever the hearer exhibits an unqualified epistemic reliance on the speaker’s say-so. ) Since most of the arguments I wish to make throughout this book will be focusing on these sorts of standard cases (and I will note where this is not so), I will simply ignore these complications and accept (a)–(c) as three necessary conditions on testimonial knowledge.

This point should not be controversial. Suppose that Gideon forms a belief that p through epistemic reliance on Sara’s testimony that p. Gideon has excellent reasons for regarding Sara as reliable, his cognitive system is working properly, and indeed Sara’s testimony is knowledgeable. In that case, Gideon’s belief is knowledge. But now imagine a variant, like the above except that Sara’s assertion is not only not knowledgeable, she’s just making it up. ) Unbeknown to Sara, p happens to be true.

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