By John F. Watts
Commonly revised and up to date with extra fabric incorporated in current chapters and new fabric on attitude resolved XPS, floor engineering and complimentary methods.
* comprises an obtainable creation to the main spectroscopic suggestions in floor analysis.
* presents descriptions of up to date tools and techniques.
* incorporates a distinct word list of key floor research phrases.
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Extra info for An Introduction To Surface Analysis By XPS And AES
9 Schematic diagram of a modern HSA and transfer lens ANALYSERS FOR ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY 39 where the kinetic energy of the electrons is given by E, e is the charge on the electron, AV is the potential difference between the hemispheres and R1 and R2 are the radii of the inner and outer hemispheres respectively. The radii of the hemispheres is constant and so the above equation can be expressed as E = ke&V in which k is known as the spectrometer constant and depends upon the design of the analyser.
The distance travelled by the X-rays depends upon the crystal plane at which they are reflected. 3 shows two adjacent crystal planes with X-rays being reflected from each. If the distance between the planes is d then the difference in the path length is 2dsin 0. If this distance is equal to an integral number of wavelengths then the X-rays interfere constructively, if not destructive interference takes place. This gives rise to the well-known Bragg equation: nX •= 2dsin 9 in which n — the diffraction order, A = the X-ray wavelength, d = the crystal lattice spacing, and 0 = Bragg angle (angle of diffraction).
1. 1 The twin anode X-ray source X-rays are generated by bombarding an anode material with high-energy electrons. The electrons are emitted from a thermal source, usually in the form of an electrically heated tungsten filament but, in some focusing X-ray monochromators, a lanthanum hexaboride emitter is used because of its higher current density (brightness). The efficiency of X-ray emission from the anode is determined by the electron energy, relative to the X-ray photon energy. 6 eV) photon flux from an aluminium anode increases by a factor of more than five if the electron energy is increased from 4keV to lOkeV.