By Annika E. Nilsson.
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Additional resources for A changing Arctic climate : science and policy in the Arctic climate impact assessment
Analytically, different theories tend to focus on either structure or agency. In addition, two fields of activity that relate to each other have been identified: politics and knowledge production. This section elaborates on those two tensions and introduces some analytical concepts that will be used to study them. 87 88 89 90 Sheila Jasanoff, "Ordering Knowledge, Ordering Society," in States of Knowledge. The Co-production of Science and Social Order, ed. Sheila Jasanoff, 13-45 (London and New York: Routledge, 2004).
31 This approach has, for example, been used in the Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (IDGEC), an international research program. IDGEC defines institutions as “sets of rules, decision-making procedures, and programs that define social practices, assign roles to participants in these practices, and 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Stein, "Coordination and Collaboration: Regimes in an Anarchic World,", 135-137. Robert O. Keohane, "The Demand for International Regimes," in International Regimes, ed.
28 Regimes, using Young’s terminology, are thus not only formally negotiated agreements but also include spontaneous and imposed orders that govern expectations and behavior. To what extent sovereign states are key actors and whether military and economic power are important become empirical questions rather than à priori assumptions. 29 This way of looking at regimes is similar to a movement in the social sciences known as new institutionalism. 31 This approach has, for example, been used in the Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (IDGEC), an international research program.